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Propolis studies in Poland were initiated by Professor Stan Scheller in the s. It was a team of Polish researchers who developed a method of Behandlung von Prostatitis in Lublin hydrophobic ethanol extracts of propolis EEP into aqueous solutions, which enabled the study of their biological properties. The studies performed in Poland showed that EEP possesses antioxidant, Behandlung von Prostatitis in Lublin, and immunostimulating properties.
It was possible to demonstrate antibacterial activity of propolis on Gram-positive bacteria, virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosisand protozoa as well as stimulating activity of aqueous extracts of propolis on proliferation of cells in vitro.
Polish investigators showed that propolis stimulates regeneration of tissue, acts as antioxidant and radioprotector, has strong immunostimulative properties, affects animals' life span by extending it, and Behandlung von Prostatitis in Lublin intellectual and life functions of the elderly. In Poland propolis studies have a long, over a year-old tradition.
They were initiated in the early s in the Chair of Microbiology and Immunology of the Medical School in Zabrze, which is one of the two medical schools of the present Medical University of Silesia in Katowice.
Propolis studies were a brainchild of the late Professor Jerzy Szaflarski, then Head of Chair of Microbiology in Zabrze, a veterinary doctor by profession.
Szaflarski passed his interest in propolis on to his young assistants, Dr. Leszek Ilewicz, a dentist, who as a visiting researcher had spent some time in the former Soviet Union.
Ilewicz brought the results of Soviet studies on propolis to Poland. In he took up veterinary studies at Wroclaw University. Inas a student, he began working as a junior assistant of Prof. In that time he focused his interests on blood groups in dogs [ 1 ] and then on leptospirae and leptospirosis in man and animals. The results of his studies were presented Behandlung von Prostatitis in Lublin his doctoral dissertation prepared under the supervision of Behandlung von Prostatitis in Lublin.
His many years of research on tuberculosis resulted in a postdoctoral dissertation on tuberculosis resistance using in vitro cell culture [ 3 — 6 ]. Behandlung von Prostatitis in Lublininspired by Prof. Szaflarski Head of the departmenthe dedicated himself to studies of propolis, Behandlung von Prostatitis in Lublin effects of which he experimented many times on himself.
Scheller's interest lay in unconventional methods of treatment. He strongly believed in alternative medicine and its potential in supporting conventional methods of treatment. In his opinion, natural products, natural healing processes, and complementary therapies assist a physician in his conventional management of disease.
Scheller endeavored to apply natural products in cases where conventional medicine was shown to be ineffective. Inunder his supervision, a series of experiments were performed in which propolis as a raw material was extracted with ethanol and after Behandlung von Prostatitis in Lublin of alcohol the extract obtained was dispersed in Tween 20 saline solution.
This method of introducing hydrophobic ethanol extracts of propolis EEP into aqueous solutions enabled the study of their biological properties and medical use. It must be emphasized that it was Scheller who popularized EEP. He proved bactericidal activity of EEP against Gram-positive, virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and some protozoa.
A group of Polish scientists under his guidance confirmed the activation of metabolic processes of cells cultured in vitro and regeneration of experimentally damaged tissue bone, cartilage, and tooth pulp or diseased tissues. They showed antioxidant activity of EEP as well as its immune-stimulating and radioprotective properties [ 7 ]. The interests of Polish scientists of Silesian Medical Academy in propolis resulted Behandlung von Prostatitis in Lublin a series of articles published in Poland and abroad.
In the data on the studies and laboratory evaluation of alcohol extract of propolis together with some observations concerning its therapeutic properties were published [ 8 — 10 ].
Four years later antibacterial properties of propolis were presented [ 11 ] and then in preliminary evaluation of clinical usefulness of propolis preparations [ 12 ].
In early studies 19 fractions of EEP were isolated and main attention was directed to their antibacterial properties [ 13 ]. Further research dealt with the antiprotozoal activity of propolis. It was shown that ethanolic extract of propolis acts effectively against Trichomonas vaginalis and Toxoplasma gondii [ 14 ]. Other studies which focused on Staphylococcus strain bacteria showed that EEP breaks the resistance of bacteria [ 15 ].
In studies on cells cultured in vitro it was observed that EEP when added to culture medium with grown cells caused intense activation of mitoses. Experimenting on laboratory animals Scheller's team showed activation of glucosephosphatase, NADPH2, and tetrazolium reductase in rats after application of EEP [ 17 ].
Positive results of EEP activity upon cells in vitro were insufficient to prove its regenerative activity. The proof lay in experiments conducted on animals. In order to obtain possibly high credibility, tissues hard to regenerate were chosen, namely, bone, articular cartilage, and dental pulp.
Application of EEP accelerated the healing processes in damaged cartilage as well as enhanced ossification in an artificially induced bone defects. Furthermore, it was proved that EEP inserted into the joint was well tolerated [ 1819 ]. It Behandlung von Prostatitis in Lublin shown that EEP supported regeneration of dental pulp and reduced inflammatory and degenerative processes [ 202425 ]. The studies conducted for several years unfortunately, the results have never been published showed that biological properties of EEP greatly depend on several ecological factors, including geographical region, plant source, season, and a method of Behandlung von Prostatitis in Lublin.
In that time Scheller established a permanent cooperation with a reputable beekeeper Jan Batko whose apiary was located in a green corner of South Poland the Carpathian Mountains near the village of Kamianna. The samples of propolis obtained from Batko were used to study antibacterial activity of EEP against reference strain Staphylococcus aureus Oxford P It was found out that antibacterial activities of EEP samples collected in various years were different which led to conclusion that the samples differed in their chemical composition.
In a sample of defined bacteriostatic activity a number of sesquiterpenes were found [ 26 ]. Unfortunately, the cooperation was soon ceased and did not result in chemical standardization of Polish propolis. Basic studies which confirmed EEP activity were conducted simultaneously with clinical studies on humans at university hospitals.
EEP having various vinculums was used in cases of postsurgical complications and burns. Behandlung von Prostatitis in Lublin was noted that, when using EEP, significantly better results were obtained in comparison to conventional methods.
The observed anti-inflammatory effect in the treatment of wounds was confirmed in studies on patients with chronic bronchitis [ 2829 ].
Use of EEP as well as crude propolis improved biochemical and immunological indicators in geriatric patients [ 3031 ]. In cooperation with orthopedic surgeons a study was conducted on osteonecrosis of thigh bone.
The study involved 54 cases of hip joint with aseptic necrosis of thigh bone. EEP was administered intra-articularly into 22 hips, Behandlung von Prostatitis in Lublin no typical conservative treatment was conducted.
In the remaining 32 cases, various forms of treatment were used. The obtained results confirmed the purpose of enriching conservative treatment with intra-articular injections of EEP, especially in advanced stages of necrosis III-IV period of illness and also in those patients whose parents did not give their consent to surgery in an early stage of the illness [ 32 ].
In Zabrze, preliminary pharmacological investigations of propolis were initiated. The effects of EEP on respiration and blood pressure in rats were studied. The extract of propolis was shown to have a low Behandlung von Prostatitis in Lublin on the overall condition of the experimental animals [ 22 ]. When this dose was repeated within 24 hours, the plaque-producing effect was even stronger; however, further increases of the propolis dose or the number of its administrations had an inhibitory effect on the plaque formation.
The authors concluded Behandlung von Prostatitis in Lublin the time interval between EEP administration and the immunization process should not exceed 48 hours [ 33 ]. In other experiments EEP was administered parenterally to rabbits. It was shown that EEP did not induce the synthesis of antibodies, what was confirmed by immunoassay tests such as complement fixation test or double diffusion gel precipitation [ 19 ].
Scheller's team cooperated with other university departments and research institutes. In Behandlung von Prostatitis in Lublin with nuclear physicists they performed neutron analysis which allowed for the Behandlung von Prostatitis in Lublin of 30 trace elements in propolis [ 34 ], whereas chromatographic analysis made it possible to determine several free amino acids, beside arginine and proline.
Scheller knew that propolis stimulates mammalian tissue regeneration and suggested that proline and arginine must play a key role in this process.
He also suggested that arginine enhances protein biosynthesis and ability to stimulate mitosis. Proline promotes the formation of elastin and collagen, which are constituents of the connective tissue. The results were published in [ 35 ]. In a laboratory for photon emission measurements was founded in the department. Granulocytes engaged in Behandlung von Prostatitis in Lublin phagocytosis of opsonized zymosan emit light by a process that is inhibited by superoxide dismutase and catalase.
Radziszewski observed the yellow light emission when oxygen was bubbled into an alkaline ethanolic solution of 2,4,5-triphenylimidazole lophine. Fifty years later, Albrecht reported the luminescent properties of 5-amino-2,3,-dihydrophthalazine-1,4-dione luminol. Luminol is a very lipid-soluble substance that can penetrate cells and tissue easily, and it is used in various ways to measure luminescence in single phagocytic Behandlung von Prostatitis in Lublin, groups of cells, and cells bound to or located with tissue.
The use of luminol-dependent CL may prove valuable as a method to measure the earliest events in the inflammatory process and may facilitate studying the mechanisms that produce inflammation. Luminol-dependent CL predominantly reflects the production of H 2 O 2 together with nitric oxide NO peroxynitrite formation [ 36 ]. In during the 5th meeting of Polish Immunological Society the first results of inhibition by EEP of luminol-dependent CL human neutrophils stimulated by opsonized zymosan were presented [ 37 ].
These studies initiated a series of in vitro studies on antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of propolis and its components that were carried out by Scheller's team [ 38 — 42 ]. Scheller [ 42 ]. In another study, Scheller's team tested 19 phenolic compounds present in propolis for their anti-inflammatory activity.
The luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence generated by neutrophils that had been stimulated by phorbol myristate acetate was evaluated. These results indicate Behandlung von Prostatitis in Lublin some of the phenolic components of the ethanol extract of propolis are active in exerting its renowned anti-inflammatory activity [ 41 ].
Other studies conducted in Zabrze were to provide an answer to the question whether propolis extracts or its isolated compounds can act directly upon tumour cells. To do this, cytotoxic cells were stimulated in vivo, and then their ability to destroy target cells, in this case tumour cells, was examined.
In several trials an increase of lytic abilities of so stimulated cells was obtained. Within studies of EEP effect on tumour cells, mice infected intraperitoneally with Ehrlich cancer were subjected to experiments in three groups. Mice in the first group were injected with EEP, in the second group with bleomycin, and in the third with bleomycin together with EEP. In conclusion the authors say that the antitumor effect of propolis was due to the flavonoids inhibiting the incorporation of thymidine, uridine, and leucine into the carcinoma Behandlung von Prostatitis in Lublin, thus leading to an inhibition of DNA synthesis [ 43 ].
Interesting studies were conducted in prior to Chernobyl disaster. In these studies EEP was tested as a protective agent against gamma irradiation in mice. The mice were exposed to sublethal doses of gamma irradiation from a 60 Co source and treated intraperitoneally with EEP which was administered before and after irradiation.
Their leukocyte count as well as their spleens' plaque-forming activity returned to normal. It was suggested that an antioxidant and a free radical scavenger in the EEP are responsible for the radiation protective effect of the extract of this natural product [ Behandlung von Prostatitis in Lublin ]. A series of experiments performed in Zabrze have proven that EEP administered orally to animals extends their lives statistically significantly [ 45 ]. Other research confirmed the antioxidant properties of EEP.
The free radical scavenging ability of Behandlung von Prostatitis in Lublin was demonstrated by electron spin resonance spectroscopy, when DPPH 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl was treated with increasing concentrations of EEP [ 46 ].